www.nortonkit.com  18 अक्तूबर 2013  
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Combinational Logic:  [Basic Gates] [Derived Gates] [The XOR Function] [Binary Addition] [Negative Numbers and Binary Subtraction] [Multiplexer] [Decoder/Demultiplexer] [Boolean Algebra] 
Sequential Logic:  [RS NAND Latch] [RS NOR Latch] [Clocked RS Latch] [RS FlipFlop] [JK FlipFlop] [D Latch] [D FlipFlop] [FlipFlop Symbols] [Converting FlipFlop Inputs] 
Alternate FlipFlop Circuits:  [D FlipFlop Using NOR Latches] [CMOS FlipFlop Construction] 
Counters:  [Basic 4Bit Counter] [Synchronous Binary Counter] [Synchronous Decimal Counter] [Frequency Dividers] [Counting in Reverse] [The Johnson Counter] 
Registers:  [Shift Register (S to P)] [Shift Register (P to S)] 
The 555 Timer:  [555 Internals and Basic Operation] [555 Application: Pulse Sequencer] 
Derived Logical Functions and Gates 

While the three basic functions AND, OR, and NOT are sufficient to accomplish all possible logical functions and operations, some combinations are used so commonly that they have been given names and logic symbols of their own.
We will discuss three of these on this page. The first is called NAND, and consists of an AND function followed by a NOT function. The second, as you might expect, is called NOR. This is an OR function followed by NOT. The third is a variation of the OR function, called the ExclusiveOR, or XOR function. As with the three basic logic functions, each of these derived functions has a specific logic symbol and behavior, which we can summarize as follows:
The three derived functions shown above are by no means the only ones, but these form the basis of all the others. On the next page we will look at how the XOR function is derived. Then we will begin our look at practical applications for logic gates in various combinations, to see just how these simple gates can be combined to perform every possible operation in a computer.


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